## Signed-rank testing in statistics.

The Wilcoxon signed-rank test is often also called non-parametric t-test. The word “non-parametric” in this case means that you know the population data does not have a normal distribution.

Wilcoxon signed-rank test features:

-Nonparametric alternative to the one- or two-samples t-test.

-Mainly used when the data do not conform to the normality assumptions.

-Tests for differences in medians instead of differences in means because mediand insensitive to outliers.

There are two slightly different versions of the test used:

- The Wilcoxon signed rank test compares your sample median against a hypothetical median.

- The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test computes the difference between each set of matched pairs,
then follows the same procedure as the signed rank test to compare the sample against some median.

## Generating initial data for Wilcoxon signed-rank test:

```
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import scipy.stats as stats
## generate the data
N = 30
data1 = np.random.poisson(1.4,N)
data2 = np.random.poisson(1,N)
colors = 'kr'
for i in range(N):
plt.plot([data1[i], data2[i]],[i, i],colors[int(data1[i]<=data2[i])])
plt.plot(data1,np.arange(N),'ks',markerfacecolor='k',label='data1')
plt.plot(data2,np.arange(N),'ro',markerfacecolor='r',label='data2')
plt.ylabel('Data index')
plt.xlabel('Data value')
plt.legend()
plt.show()
```

## Wilcoxon signed-rank test using the Python scipy library:

```
t,p = stats.wilcoxon(data1,data2)
print('Wilcoxon z=%g, p=%g'%(t,p))
```

OUT: Wilcoxon z=74, p=0.046319