## Spearman correlation in statistics.

Classical Pearson correlation has limitations as high sensitivity to outliers and tends to inftale or deflate nonlinear relationships, i e appropriate for normal data. Unlike Pearson’s correlation, there is no requirement of normality and hence it is a nonparametric statistic.

To understand Spearman’s correlation it is necessary to know what a monotonic
function is. A monotonic function is one that either never increases or never decreases
as its independent variable increases.Spearman’s correlation works by calculating Pearson’s correlation on the ranked
values of this data.

Intuition behind Spearman’s correlation values - the same as classical Pearson correlation.

* .00-.19 “very weak”

* .20-.39 “weak”

* .40-.59 “moderate”

* .60-.79 “strong”

* .80-1.0 “very strong”

Fisher's r to z transformation is a statistical method that converts a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient to a standardized z score in order to assess whether the correlation is statistically different from zero.

## Anscobe's quartet visualization with correlations:

```
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import scipy.stats as stats
anscombe = np.array([
# series 1 series 2 series 3 series 4
[10, 8.04, 10, 9.14, 10, 7.46, 8, 6.58, ],
[ 8, 6.95, 8, 8.14, 8, 6.77, 8, 5.76, ],
[13, 7.58, 13, 8.76, 13, 12.74, 8, 7.71, ],
[ 9, 8.81, 9, 8.77, 9, 7.11, 8, 8.84, ],
[11, 8.33, 11, 9.26, 11, 7.81, 8, 8.47, ],
[14, 9.96, 14, 8.10, 14, 8.84, 8, 7.04, ],
[ 6, 7.24, 6, 6.13, 6, 6.08, 8, 5.25, ],
[ 4, 4.26, 4, 3.10, 4, 5.39, 8, 5.56, ],
[12, 10.84, 12, 9.13, 12, 8.15, 8, 7.91, ],
[ 7, 4.82, 7, 7.26, 7, 6.42, 8, 6.89, ],
[ 5, 5.68, 5, 4.74, 5, 5.73, 19, 12.50, ]
])
# plot and compute correlations
fig,ax = plt.subplots(2,2,figsize=(6,6))
ax = ax.ravel()
for i in range(4):
ax[i].plot(anscombe[:,i*2],anscombe[:,i*2+1],'ko')
ax[i].set_xticks([])
ax[i].set_yticks([])
corr_p = stats.pearsonr(anscombe[:,i*2],anscombe[:,i*2+1])[0]
corr_s = stats.spearmanr(anscombe[:,i*2],anscombe[:,i*2+1])[0]
ax[i].set_title('r_p = %g, r_s = %g'%(np.round(corr_p*100)/100,np.round(corr_s*100)/100))
plt.show()
```

## Fisher-Z transformation:

```
# simulate correlation coefficients
N = 10000
r = 2*np.random.rand(N) - 1
# Fisher-Z
fz = np.arctanh(r)
# overlay the Fisher-Z
y,x = np.histogram(fz,30)
x = (x[1:]+x[0:-1])/2
plt.bar(x,y)
# raw correlations
y,x = np.histogram(r,30)
x = (x[1:]+x[0:-1])/2
plt.bar(x,y)
plt.xlabel('r / f')
plt.ylabel('Count')
plt.legend(('Fisher-Z','Raw r'))
plt.show()
```

## Correlation VS Fisher-Z:

```
plt.plot(range(N),np.sort(r), 'o',markerfacecolor='w',markersize=7)
plt.plot(range(N),np.sort(fz),'o',markerfacecolor='w',markersize=7)
plt.ylabel('Value')
plt.legend(('Correlation','Fisher-Z'))
# zoom in
# plt.ylim([-.8,.8])
plt.show()
```